Polygon zkEVM prover reaches Type 1 status

A Fully Ethereum equivalent prover means that it does not need to change any part of Ethereum in order to generate proofs


Polygon and Adobe Stock modified by Blockworks


Polygon Labs, the infrastructure team behind the Polygon ecosystem, has revealed its latest innovation — a Polygon zero-knowledge Ethereum Virtual Machine (zkEVM) Type 1 prover.

Provers on the blockchain are computational entities that attest to whether or not a piece of information is accurate without revealing the underlying data. These provers create “proofs” that are then validated by verifiers.

A Type 1 prover indicates the highest level of compatibility with the Ethereum blockchain. This means that it does not need to change any part of Ethereum in order to generate a proof. This includes storage structure, hash functionality or any other consensus logic.

According to Brendan Farmer, co-founder of Polygon, Type 1 zkEVMs must make performance trade-offs when it comes to proof generation and requires more computation, but ultimately makes Ethereum layer-1 itself much more scalable. 

Read More: How to decentralize a prover, according to an engineer who did it for fun

The Polygon team has worked on the proving system — Plonky2 — for over 16 months.  By the end of this year, it is expected that the team will release Plonky3, which will see significant performance improvements, Farmer notes. 

The new Type 1 zkEVM prover is completely open source, with a dual license under MIT and Apache 2.0. The MIT license carries very few restrictions, as does the Apache 2.0 license, though users who make significant changes to the code must mark the modifications. 

By introducing the Type 1 prover, any existing EVM equivalent blockchain can become a zk layer-2 solution and integrate into the Polygon ecosystem through its aggregation layer without having to fork its network. This includes the likes of Manta, Canto and Celo, Farmer said. Polygon’s zkEVM prover will also be compatible with Type 2 zkEVMs at a lower cost. 

Polygon’s aggregation layer was introduced in January as an alternative to existing scaling narratives — monolithic and modular blockchains — and is designed to center scaling around its own unified AggLayer, a protocol that provides cross-chain UX.

Polygon is not the first team to have introduced this type of architecture. In August last year, Risc Zero introduced its “Type 0” zkEVM, Zeth, a general-purpose programming language that could be EVM equivalent.

Read More: Risc Zero introduces ‘Type 0’ zkEVM to make zero-knowledge tech more accessible

Unlike Type 1 zkEVMs, Type 0 zkEVMs are designed in a way so that developers can modify and customize their zk stack for compatibility with any network, like zkSolana, for example. Its downside, according to Farmer, is that it could be a little more costly. 

Farmer predicts that in the coming weeks, performance on Polygon’s zkEVM prover will improve by around 35% and be roughly 50 times more affordable than its competitors’.

Don’t miss the next big story – join our free daily newsletter.


Upcoming Events

Hilton Metropole | 225 Edgware Rd, London

Mon - Wed, March 18 - 20, 2024

Crypto’s premier institutional conference returns to London in March 2024. The DAS: London Experience: Attend expert-led panel discussions and fireside chats Hear the latest developments regarding the crypto and digital asset regulatory environment directly from policymakers and experts.

Salt Lake City, UT

WED - FRI, OCTOBER 9 - 11, 2024

Pack your bags, anon — we’re heading west! Join us in the beautiful Salt Lake City for the third installment of Permissionless. Come for the alpha, stay for the fresh air. Permissionless III promises unforgettable panels, killer networking opportunities, and mountains […]

recent research

Top Icon.png


Osmosis thrived in H2 2023 on the back of increased DeFi activity deriving from recently launched Cosmos-related projects and better market conditions. With new value accrual mechanisms for the native token, Osmosis is well-positioned to continue its strong performance in 2024.



Though the opposing flow trend is likely to slow over time, industry watchers note, bitcoin fund assets could one day eclipse the $90 billion gold ETF space


Celestia had the first mover advantage. EigenDA has staked ether. What sets Avail apart?


Bitcoin moved 1% higher Monday morning in New York, Matrixport analysts say $62,000 could happen next month


It’s hard to believe right now that crypto — even with all of its flexibility and massive capabilities — could ever be like cash on the internet


Michael Saylor announced Monday morning that MicroStrategy bought 3k more bitcoin after the X account was compromised over the weekend


Plus, Pudgy Penguins grows its brand and a group of Autoglyphs sell for $14.5 million